Aprenda como inovar na gestão pública

Aprenda como inovar na gestão pública

A gestão pública enfrenta uma crise de imagem. A mídia tenta desacreditar o governo se valendo da desinformação existente com relação às diferenças de funcionamento entre os setores público e privado.

No entanto, o cenário no âmbito público é marcado pela escassez de recursos e rigidez de processos, frente a um setor privado ágil e dotado de recursos, o que pode desmotivar, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, se mostra propício para a inovação.

Essa inovação se manifesta de diversas maneiras: desde a utilização de tecnologia para melhorar a comunicação até a revisão de processos básicos.

Pensando em ajudá-lo, preparamos 5 dicas para começar a implementar inovação na gestão pública.

1. Gestão pública e redes de inovação

Um dos desafios para o gestor que deseja inovar na gestão pública é saber por onde começar.

A primeira dica se refere à necessidade de conhecer organizações e atores da mesma área que você em sua cidade, estado, país e mesmo mundialmente.

É necessário saber quais assuntos são mais relevantes, quais problemas e soluções referentes ao seu segmento estão sendo discutidos, bem como quem tem conduzido às discussões.

E o governo tem os meios de promover esses debates, seja por meio de fóruns ou coletivos de iniciativas marcadas pelo diálogo aberto e filiação voluntária.

2. Gestão de projetos e inovação estruturada

Trabalhar dentro de uma metodologia que tenha como principal diretriz a gestão de projetos garante iniciativas inovadoras que atendam a padrões básicos de qualidade.

Segmentar o projeto em ciclos, as estratégias em ações, e, por fim, as ações em tarefas menores permite responsabilizar os envolvidos por cada passo, facilitando o controle do que está sendo realizado.

Outra vantagem é poder demonstrar processos de forma visual, permitindo representar fidedignamente o andamento de cada etapa, o que facilita a inserção de pessoas que nunca trabalharam com esse modelo de gestão.

Esse é um método mais transparente, que propicia produtividade e proatividade, por demonstrar que todos têm uma função.

3. Gestão de desempenho e utilização de indicadores

A criação de indicadores passa obrigatoriamente por quatro etapas: o que se deseja medir, qual a resposta possível, como essa resposta vai ser medida e qual a finalidade dessa medição, ou seja, o que se pretende comprovar e é útil na hora de apoiar o processo decisório em vários momentos.

Gerir desempenho por meio de indicadores pode ser especialmente útil quando se fala de inovação, uma vez que a realização de testes dentro dessa proposta é comum e os índices ajudam a mensurar a resposta das hipóteses testadas.

4. Gestão inovadora e utilização de metas

A criação de metas não precisa ser algo restrito ao âmbito interno mas também pode se estender para fornecedores e prestadores de serviços que geralmente já têm obrigações mínimas previstas em contrato.

Mesmo com um instrumento formal que estabeleça essas obrigações, as metas devem ser revistas e adequadas observando sempre o dia a dia dos serviços.

A formulação dessas metas deve ocorrer em conjunto com as áreas responsáveis, os fiscais dos contratos e de um representante dos fornecedores ou prestadores de serviço para que os objetivos acordados funcionem melhor.

5. Gestão inovadora e promoção da participação

Não é possível implementar processos inovadores sem o envolvimento das pessoas, pois é por meio delas que será possível tirar o projeto do papel.

Iniciativas de engajamento ainda não são ostensivamente utilizadas, mas, ainda assim, há exemplos positivos que podem ser citados, como o caso brasileiro de utilização do orçamento participativo como ferramenta de gestão, além de outras experiências exitosas como a mobilização observada em consultas públicas como a do marco civil da internet.

Mesmo em organizações mais engessadas é possível inserir elementos que promovam a participação dos grupos buscando a soluções para problemas locais.

O objetivo é que a gestão fomente essas iniciativas e utilize soluções oferecidas pelos grupos em vez de tomar decisões arbitrárias.

Uma das principais formas de praticar uma gestão pública inovadora é desenvolvendo serviços abertos à participação de parceiros: o terceiro setor, outras esferas governamentais e a comunidade, juntos, para discutir os desafios e transformar o ambiente organizacional em um promotor da inovação em vez de refutá-la.

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